Skin is vital lớn our overall health cùng wellbeing. As well as acting as the body toàn thân’s first line of defense against bacteria và viruses, healthy skin mathienmaonline.vnains the balance of fluids với helps mập regulate body toàn thân temperature. It is highly sensitive, recognising the softest touch as well as pain. As our largest với most visible organ, covering nearly 2m² và making up almost a sixth of our toàn thân toàn thân weight, skin condition can also have a significant impact on our self-esteem.

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A constantly changing, dynamic organ, skin consists of three main layers – the epidermis, the dermis cùng the subcutis – each of which is made up of several sub-layers. Skin appendages –such as follicles cùng sebaceous và sweat glands – also play various roles in its overall function.


The skin consists of three layers: epidermis, dermis với subcutis. Epidermis

As the outermost layer that we see với touch, the epidermis protects us from toxins, bacteria và fluid loss. It consists of 5 sub-layers of keratinocyte cells. These cells, produced in the innermost basal layer, migrate up towards the surface of the skin. As they do, they mature và undergo a series of changes. It is this process, known as keratinisation (or cornification), that makes each of the sub-layers distinct.

Basal layer (or stratum basale): The innermost layer where keratinocyte cells are produced. Prickle layer (or stratum spinosum): Keratinocytes produce keratin (protein fibres) cùng become spindle-shaped. Granular layer (stratum granulosum): Keratinisation begins – cells produce hard granules và, as they push upwards, these granules change keratin cùng epidermal lipids. Clear layer (stratum lucidium): Cells are tightly compressed, flattened và indistinguishable from one another. Horny layer (or stratum corneum): The outermost layer of the epidermis with, on average, about trăng tròn sub-layers of flattened, dead cells depending on where on the body toàn thân toàn thân the skin is. These dead cells are shed regularly in a process known as desquamation. The horny layer is also trang chủ lớn the sweat gland pores cùng the openings of the sebaceous glands.


The outermost skin layer is known as the horny layer cùng is where dead cells are regularly shed.

The cells in the horny layer are bound together by epidermal lipids. These lipids are essential for healthy skin: they create its protective barrier với bind in moisture. When lipids are missing, skin can becomedry với may feel tight với rough.

The epidermis is covered by an emulsion of water và lipids (fats) known as the hydrolipid film. This film, mathienmaonline.vnained by secretions from the sweat và sebaceous glands, helps mập keep our skin supple với acts as a further barrier against bacteria cùng fungi.

The water part of this film, known as the protective acid mantle contains:

Lactic acid với various amino acids from sweat. Không tính phí fatty acids from sebum. Amino acids, pyrrolidine carboxylic acid với other natural moisturising factors (NMF’s) which are mainly by-products of the keratinsation process.


Inside the horny layer cells are bound together by lipids, which are essential in keeping skin healthy.

This protective acid mantle gives healthy skin its slightly acidic pH of between 5.4 và 5.9. The ideal environment for:

Skin-friendly microorganisms (known as skin flora) khủng thrive với harmful microorganisms khủng be destroyed. The formation of epidermal lipids. The enzymes that drive the process of desquamation. The horny layer lớn be able mập repair itself when damaged.

Over most parts of the body toàn thân, the epidermis is only about 0.1 mm in total, though it is considerably thinner on skin around the eyes (0.05mm) và considerably thicker (between 1 với 5mm) on the soles of the feet. To find out more read understanding skin on different parts of the body toàn thân với how male cùng female skin differs.


The dermis consists of a thick upper layer on the subcutis với a wave-like lower layer on the epidermis. The dermis is the thick, elastic but firm middle layer of the skin, made up of 2 sub-layers: The lower layer (or stratum reticulare): a deep, thick area, which forms a fluid border with the subcutis. The upper layer (or stratum papillare): forms a defined, wave-like border with the epidermis.

The main structural components of the dermis are collagen và elastin, connective tissues, which give strength với flexibility với are the vital components of healthy, young-looking skin. These fibres are embedded in a gel-like substance (containing hyaluronic acid), which has a high capacity for water-binding cùng helps mập mathienmaonline.vnain the volume of our skin.

Lifestyle cùng external factors such as the sun cùng changes in temperature have an impact of collagen với elastin levels với on the structure of the surrounding substance. As we age, our natural production of collagen và elastin slows down với the skin’s ability lớn bind in water decreases. Skin looks less toned cùng wrinkles appear. Read more in factors that influence the skin, how sun affects skin cùng skin ageing.

The dermis plays a key role in protecting the toàn thân toàn thân from external influences và irritants as well as feeding the outermost layers of skin from within:

Its thick, firm texture helps bự cushion external blows và, when damage occurs, it contains connective tissues such as fibroblasts và mast cells that heal wounds. It is rich in blood vessels that nourish the epidermis while removing waste. The sebaceous glands (which deliver sebum or oil bự the surface of the skin) cùng the sweat glands (which deliver water cùng lactic acid béo the surface of the skin) are both located in the dermis. These fluids combine together lớn hóa trang the hydrolipid film.

The dermis is also home lớn:

Lymph vessels. Sensory receptors. Hair roots: the bulbous end of the hair shaft where hair is developed.


The dermis protects the body toàn thân toàn thân with its cushioning, its ability béo nourish cùng remove waste as well as its ability bự sweat. Subcutis (or hypodermis)

The subcutis pads cùng insulates the body toàn thân toàn thân và is home lớn fat cells, collagen fibres cùng blood vessels. The innermost layer of our skin stores energy while padding với insulating the toàn thân toàn thân. It is mainly composed of: Fat cells (adipocytes): clumped together in cushion-like groups. Special collagen fibres (called tissue septa or boundaries): loose cùng spongy connective tissues that hold the fat cells together. Blood vessels.

The number of fat cells contained in the subcutis differs on different parts of the body toàn thân toàn thân. Moreover, the distribution of fat cells also differs between men với women, as does the structure of other parts of the skin.

Skin changes during a person’s lifetime. Khủng find out more read skin in different ages.

Skin is essential to our overall health và wellbeing. Healthy skin acts as a barrier between the outside world cùng the inside of the body toàn thân toàn thân cùng is our best và first defense against:

UV protection Cold, heat, water loss với radiation: As the outermost layer of the skin, the horny layer plays a pivotal role in protecting the body toàn thân from the environment cùng limiting the amount of water lost from the epidermis.It contains natural moisturising factors (NMFs) – derived from sebaceous oils of the horny layer including lactic acid cùng urea. These bind with water với help bự mathienmaonline.vnain skin’s elasticity, firmness cùng suppleness. If these factors are depleted, skin loses moisture. When moisture of the horny layer falls lớn below 8 mập 10%, it becomes rough, dry và prone béo cracking.When the skin is regularly exposed phệ UV rays, melanin production in the basal layer increases, skin thickens lớn protect itself và hyperpigmentation can occur. Read more in how sun affects skin.The fat cells in the subcutis also insulate the body toàn thân from cold với heat.

Protective barrier

Sensation Pressure, blows và abrasion: Again, the epidermis forms the first layer of defence. The fat cells in the subcutis provide padding that acts as a shock absorber, protecting the muscle tissue với fascia (the fibrous tissue that surrounds muscles) beneath.

When skin is exposed mập certain external stimuli the horny layer thickens, for example when calluses form on hands or feet that are exposed bự repeated rubbing

Chemical substances: The buffer capacity of the hydrolipid film với the protective acid mantle helps to protect the body toàn thân toàn thân from harmful alkaline based chemicals. Read more in factors that influence skin.

Bacteria và viruses: The horny layer of the epidermis cùng its protective acid mantle form a barrier against bacteria cùng fungi. If something passes this first line of defense, skin’s immune system reacts.


Temperature regulation: Skin perspires mập cool the body toàn thân toàn thân cùng contracts the vascular system in the dermis lớn conserve heat.

Control of sensation: Nerve endings in skin make it sensitive mập pressure, vibration, touch, pain cùng temperature.

Regeneration: Skin is able mập repair wounds.

Food source: The fat cells in the subcutis serve as important storage units for nutrients. When the body toàn thân needs them, they pass the surrounding blood vessels với are carried lớn where they are required.

Skin also plays an important psychological role. As the most visible indicator of health, the condition of our skin affects how we feel about ourselves cùng how others view us. When skin is healthy và problem-free it is able phệ do its job better cùng we feel more comfortable với confident.

Healthy, problem-free skin is even in colour, smooth in texture, well hydrated với appropriately sensitive lớn touch, pressure và temperature. When skin’s natural barrier is disturbed, its protective function với healthy appearance are compromised:

It becomes increasingly sensitive khủng external influences (such as sun với temperature changes) cùng is particularly prone mập infection.

Infected skin can become inflamed as inflammatory immune cells move in béo try và repair the damaged barrier cùng heal the infection. In the case of conditions such asAtopic Dermatitis với an itchy scalp, specialist treatment is often needed béo break the vicious cycle of repeated itching với further infection và mập help regenerate skin’s natural barrier.

Skin has variousregeneration với repair mechanisms. The basal layer ensures a steady renewal of the epidermis, through continual cell division:

If an injury is confined bự the uppermost skin layer, the damage (known as erosion) can heal without scarring. If the damage reaches the dermis với the basal membrane is affected (e.g. An ulcer) then scarring normally occurs.

Wound-healingfollows several consecutive stages:

Coagulating blood forms a membrane with a hard surface that sticks to the wound (a crust or scab). Dead cùng damaged cells và their connective tissues are broken down cùng dissolved by enzymes. Cells that protect the body toàn thân by digesting harmful bacteria và dead cells become active. Lymphatic fluids flow the wound. New cells – including capillary buds, connective tissues với collagen fibres – khung in a process known as epithelisation.

This latter stage can be stimulated với supported by the application of topical products that assist healing (e.g. Dexpanthenol).

Xem thêm: Bảng Xếp Hạng Giải Bóng Đá Vô Địch Quốc Gia Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ 2020/2021

Read more about the factors that influence skin health với about how bự keep skin healthy infactors that influence skin,caring for skin on the bodyanda daily skincare routine for the face.

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